In Part One of this series, Garry Rodan introduced the Singaporean system: one where economic globalisation, authoritarianism, and state capitalism have developed side-by-side over the years. While this once delivered impressive economic growth and an improved quality of life for Singaporeans, new challenges have emerged that are prompting Singaporeans to question the ruling People’s Action Party’s core ideologies.

In this part, he looks at how the PAP’s core ideology on welfare has been challenged as concerns have mounted over retirement funds and the cost of living, and how the party has moved to address voter unhappiness while continuing to block claims that citizens can assert rights against either their government or the state.

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Garry Rodan is an Emeritus Professor of Murdoch University and an Honorary Professor of The University of Queensland. His most recent books are the sole-authored Participation without Democracy (2018) and the co-authored The Politics of Accountability in Southeast Asia (2014).

Originally from Bradford, West Yorkshire in the north of England, Tom is currently based in Singapore where he works as a freelance photographer. His photography has been published and exhibited internationally. Editorial clients include The New York Times, The L.A. Times, The Wall Street Journal, TIME magazine, The Guardian U.K, Thompson Reuters and The European Press Photo Agency.