In Part One of this series, Garry Rodan introduced the Singaporean system: one where economic globalisation, authoritarianism, and state capitalism have developed side-by-side over the years. While this once delivered impressive economic growth and an improved quality of life for Singaporeans, new challenges have emerged that are prompting Singaporeans to question the ruling People’s Action Party’s core ideologies.
In this part, he looks at how the PAP’s core ideology on welfare has been challenged as concerns have mounted over retirement funds and the cost of living, and how the party has moved to address voter unhappiness while continuing to block claims that citizens can assert rights against either their government or the state.
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