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Notes and Terms

For communities and advocates, a more person-centred term is preferred, but for the Philippines education sector, ‘special education’ is the term currently being used. However, following passage of the Law for Inclusive Education in March, there may soon be a change in terminologies. The law mandates that Special Education Centres become Inclusive Learning Resource Centres, for example.

kuya: older brother

neurodivergent: people whose brains function differently from what is considered normal or standard, such as people living with autism or ADHD

neurotypical: person with no developmental issues

self-regulation: when a person can manage their emotions on their own and keep inappropriate behaviour in check

sound sensitivities: aversion to loud or sudden noises

Schools in the Philippines are classified as either public or private. Public schools are government-funded and are free to attend, while private schools are privately owned and enrollees pay tuition.

Some interview dialogues have been edited for length and clarity.


“OPEN Talk 11: Remote Learning Para Sa SPED at Katutubo, Paano Nga Ba?” University of the Philippines Open University, 30 July 2021.

Rotas and Cahapay, “Difficulties in Remote Learning: Voices of Philippine University Students in the Wake of COVID-19 Crisis.” Asian Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 15, Issue 2, 2020.

Page 3, panel 1 is based on the experiences of a 6-year-old student in Bohol province who has to walk 600 metres from his house to a hilltop to get decent mobile internet signals.

Page 4, panel 2 shows a group of schoolchildren helping each other answer printed modules provided by the Department of Education.


For families in the Philippines seeking help, below is a list of developmental paediatric institutions that offer free consultations.

Bambi Eloriaga-Amago

Bambi Eloriaga-Amago has worked on the editorial staff of various ABS-CBN publications and served as Editor-in-Chief of Questor: The Ultimate Anime Magazine. Currently working as a full-time freelance writer, she adapts manga scripts for English-language readers and has written original comics.

Roland Amago

Roland Amago’s past projects include background art, tones, lettering, and layout work on numerous New York Times best-selling manga for US-based publishing houses. At present, he is working as an illustrator for a comic book companion series for a soon-to-be-released Hollywood film.

As a husband-and-wife creative team, their works include Doobiedoo Asks, an official selection of the first-ever Philippine International Comics Festival (PICOF) and Best Media Pitch Winner at the 2021 Asian Festival of Children’s Content (AFCC) in Singapore, and Carnal Tales, which landed Roland a Best Illustrator nomination at the 2020 Komiket Awards (Philippines.)